Vehicle emissions can be reduced through four principle methods: (1) fuel switching and alternative fuels (Sperling, Setiawan, and Hungerford [6]); (2) exhaust-emission controls; (3) reduced vehicle fuel intensity, that is, reducing fuel consumption per distance traveled; and (4) reduced vehicle use per capita. 5B, which is an example of nonconvexity. In the chemical industry, nitric oxide is an intermediate compound formed during the oxidation of ammonia to nitric acid. They are generally grouped together because most anthropogenic NO 2 derives from emissions of NO and they interconvert readily within the atmosphere. The drug nitroglycerin has been used since the late 19th century to relieve the condition known as angina pectoris, which is caused by an insufficient supply of blood to the heart muscle. Olabe, L.D. Nitric oxide or nitrogen monoxide (NO) is a colorless gas. Further, because Pluto is less massive than Triton by about a factor of 2, it is impossible for Pluto to reverse Triton's orbit to a retrograde one, as is observed. As it is not practical to monitor for all of these compounds, a combination of nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide sensors will give the best indication of overall air quality. 5A. The nitroside anion (NO−), or its acid–base related HNO, is a precursor of N2O. This tower is usually a tray-type column, although more recently packed towers have been introduced. The composition of the Martian atmosphere was determined in the mid-1970s by the Viking Landers. It is unreactive toward hydrolysis in water and its solubility is 1.9 mM atm−1 at 298 K, increasing in organic solvents. Variants on the “origin as a former satellite of Neptune” hypothesis were later proposed. Policy alternatives that reduce vehicle emissions also frequently reduce congestion problems, and so produce two sets of social benefits. According to Lyttleton, this encounter also reversed the orbit of Triton. In the stratosphere NO is derived from the photochemical decomposition of nitrous oxide (N2O, see Section 3) and is involved in one of the main catalytic ozone (O3) reaction cycles (Crutzen, 1970, 1996). Low-temperature fractionation is the preferred method of hydrocarbon separation. It is rapidly oxidized within a few minutes to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), thus NO and NO2 are usually referred to as NOx (= NO + NO2). Because it has an odd number of electrons, NO is a very reactive molecule (a so-called radical) (Greenwood and Earnshaw, 1984). Nitric oxide is formed from nitrogen and oxygen by the action of electric sparks or high temperatures or, more conveniently, by the action of dilute nitric acid upon copper or mercury. These molecules can decay by emission of light of wavelengths longer than 600 nm.24. The policy/incentives issues can operate upon any of these four areas. Nitrogen monoxide gas products are most popular in Southeast Asia, North America, and Eastern Asia. (B) Marginal benefit curve (MB) derived from isopleths. Nitrogen Monoxide (Nitric Oxide) Nitric oxide is a colourless paramagnetic gas. It has few industrial applications. Information on Distillation Steps. The device for nitrogen oxides based on chemiluminescence measures the nitrogen monoxide concentration. Refrigeration compressors are large and have energy requirements essentially similar to those of the initial product gas compressors. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Another medical use of nitric oxide is in the treatment of impotence, or erectile dysfunction, in men. A special issue of Chemical Reviews devoted to NO chemistry, covers coordination aspects (including organometallics), bonding, spectroscopy (IR, NMR), reactivity, solid-state structures of metalloporphyrin NOx compounds, and other specific bio-relevant aspects related to heme and nonheme iron nitrosyls, as well as to denitrification processes.3, S. Alan Stern, in Encyclopedia of the Solar System (Third Edition), 2014. Separation of the C2 stream to produce high-purity ethylene and ethane requires a large tower, sometimes the largest one in the plant. [5]). Nitrogen dioxide is non-flammable but supports combustion. Nitric oxide (NO), also called nitrogen monoxide, colourless toxic gas that is formed by the oxidation of nitrogen. The nitric oxide molecule’s possession of a free radical makes it much more reactive than other signaling molecules, and its small size enables it to diffuse through cell membranes and walls to perform a range of signaling functions in various bodily systems. B.L. And, second, how could Pluto and the Charon progenitor, alone in over 103 AU3 of space, “find” each other in order to execute a mutual collision? It has few industrial applications. Its molar mass is 30.01 grams per mole, and it has a density of 1.34 grams per cubic decimeter. Haberle, in Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences (Second Edition), 2015. Crynes, ... Loo-Fung Tan, in Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology (Third Edition), 2003. Major anthropogenic sources are vehicular emissions and stationary combustion of fossil fuels. Composition of the Martian lower atmosphere (<120 km); the global mean annual surface pressure is ∼6.1 hPa, PETRI SJOHOLM, ... HEIKKI TORVELA, in Industrial Ventilation Design Guidebook, 2001. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The body synthesizes nitric oxide from the amino acid L-arginine by means of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase. Hydrogen abstraction reactions occur upon reaction with hyponitrous acid (H2N2O2) or hydroxylamine (NH2OH), with intermediate HNO.2, Transition metal-mediated reactions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) are of interest from an environmental perspective, as exemplified by their role in atmospheric pollution,7,8 and by the nitrification and denitrification processes (release of N2 and N2O) afforded by different enzymes in natural systems (Figure 1).2,11 Potential applications of nitrosyl complexes for the assembly of devices with novel optical and magnetic properties are also attractive.12,13 Transition metal nitrosyl-complexes span variable geometries, CNs, and electronic properties due to the differences in electronic configurations of the metal centers and covalent MNO interactions.14–18 To simplify the bonding description we follow the Enemark–Feltham's (E–F) electron-counting formalism,14 a MO-based approach which considers the electronic distribution in the overall {MNO} unit, without assumptions on the actual degree of electron density on M and the NO group. They can address the problem of getting polluters to adopt engineering solutions available in order to reduce emissions. In Lyttleton's well-remembered scenario, Pluto was formerly a satellite of Neptune, ejected via a close encounter between itself and the satellite Triton. NO is a short-lived intermediate in a variety of chemical reactions in both the troposphere and the stratosphere (Warneck, 2000). Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. This methodology has proved to be successful to explain and most notably to predict the geometries for the different combinations of CN and n collected in Table 1. Nitric oxide may be released by the action of nitric acid on metals, such as in metal etching and pickling, and is a by-product of combustion of substances in fossil fuel plants. This is in spite of the fact that much real-world pollution abatement policy operates through administrative commands, which function primarily through regulation, but contain incentive elements in the form of penalties and subsidies. Guarda le traduzioni di ‘nitrogen monoxide’ in italiano. Nitrogen dioxide poisoning depends on the duration, frequency, and intensity of … It can be made worthwhile through a variety of carrot-and-stick methods. Such a population would make likely the Pluto–Charon collision, as well as three otherwise highly unlikely occurrences in the 20–30 AU region: the capture of Triton into retrograde orbit and the tilting of Uranus and Neptune. Composition of the Martian lower atmosphere (<120 km), R.M. An instrument for measuring nitrogen oxides based on chemiluminescence is shown in Fig. The first three involve technical and engineering solutions. Control Valves - Control Valve terminology, bodies, trim, flow characteristics, Cv and Kv sizing, noise, actuators and positioners; Gases and Compressed Air - Air, LNG, LPG and other common gas properties, pipeline capacities, sizing of relief valves; Material Properties - Material properties for gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more Do not extinguish the fire unless the flow of gas can be stopped and any remaining gas … ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Gaseous Nitrogen Compounds (NO, N2O, N2, NH3) in the Ocean, Nitrogen in the Marine Environment (Second Edition), Corbett and Fischbeck, 1997; Lawrence and Crutzen, 1999; Von Glasow, Fundamentals: Ligands, Complexes, Synthesis, Purification, and Structure, Encyclopedia of the Solar System (Third Edition), Economic and Planning Aspects of Transportation Emission, Handbook of Air Pollution From Internal Combustion Engines, SOLAR SYSTEM/SUN, ATMOSPHERES, EVOLUTION OF ATMOSPHERES | Planetary Atmospheres, Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences (Second Edition), Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology (Third Edition). Nitrogen in coal, oil, and natural gas cannot be removed prior to combustion. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2) gas has a distinct orange-brown color. …formed by the reaction of nitric oxide (NO) with many transition metal compounds or by reactions involving species containing nitrogen and oxygen. The first widely discussed theory for Pluto's origin was R.A. Lyttleton's (1936) suggestion, which was based on the fact that Pluto's orbit is Neptune-crossing. Calculate the concentration, C NO (mg/m 3), of NO in the air volume sampled, V (L), applying the factor 0.652 (MW NO/MW NO 2 ­) and the conversion factor 0.63: EVALUATION OF METHOD: NO has a m.p. At the point of emission, the composition of NO x is 90-95 percent NO, with higher temperature favoring the production of NO. (2000); Jickells (2006)) (see Chapters 9 and 11Chapter 9Chapter 11). One of the final oxidation products of NO, nitric acid (HNO3), forms NO3− aerosol particles or is washed out by rain. In regions with high NO emissions from fossil-fuel combustion (e.g., in urban areas), complex photochemical processes involving NOx and hydrocarbons result in photochemical smog with enhanced O3 concentrations. All pollution emissions problems involve two separate sets of issues: technical engineering issues for controlling pollution and policy/incentive issues. Nitrogen gas applications are seemingly endless. The former removes propane and propylene from the higher hydrocarbons and the latter removes essentially all of the C4 hydrocarbons from the remaining C5–C8 hydrocarbons. First, why is Pluto so small? Wearing proper equipment, shut off flow of gas. Oh-L: octahedral, linear; Oh-B: octahedral, bent; TP-L: tetragonal pyramidal, linear; TP-B: tetragonal pyramidal, bent; TBP-Lax: trigonal bipyramidal, linear NO in axial position; TBP-Leq: trigonal bipyramidal linear NO in equatorial position, Td-L: tetrahedral, linear; SP-B: square planar, bent. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The molecule can gain or lose one electron to form the ions NO− or NO+. That is, the giant impact hypothesis still fails to explain (1) the existence of Pluto and Charon themselves; (2) the very small masses of Pluto and Charon compared to the gas giants in general, and Neptune and Uranus in particular; (3) the fact that the collision producing the impact was highly unlikely; and (4) the system's position in the Neptune resonance. In order to get reliable measurements, the converter must have a conversion efficiency of over 95%. The approach of economists and city planners to vehicle emissions is addressed in this chapter. More recent measurements by the Mars Science Laboratory confirm the Viking measurements, but find equal abundances for N2 and 40Ar (both 1.9%). In chemiluminescence, some of the chemical reaction products developed remain in an excited state and radiate light when the excitation is discharged. Still, such a scenario begs two questions. Aromatics are frequently recovered and separated to obtain benzene, toluene, and xylenes, especially when heavy feedstocks are used. The list contains the Limit, Critical, Target and Long-term Values on ambient air for protection of human health and vegetation. As a nonreactive gas, nitrogen is employed to make foamed—or expanded—rubber, plastics, and elastomers, to serve as a propellant gas for aerosol cans, and to pressurize liquid propellants for reaction jets. The same equipment can be used to measure the concentration of nitrogen dioxide. Further, the present tidal equilibrium state would naturally be reached by Pluto and Charon in 108–109 years—a small fraction of the age of the solar system. When a mixture of air and hydrocarbon fuel is burned in an internal-combustion engine or a power plant, the ordinarily inert nitrogen in the air combines with oxygen at very high temperatures to form nitric oxide. As described earlier, it is thought that the two objects (or more precisely Pluto and a Charon progenitor) formed independently and subsequently collided, thus forming the binary either through direct, inelastic capture or through the accretion of Charon from debris put in orbit around Pluto by the impact. The nitric oxide and hydrocarbon vapours emitted by automotive exhausts and power-plant smokestacks undergo complex photochemical reactions in the lower atmosphere to form various secondary pollutants called photochemical oxidants, which make up photochemical smog. Information on this page: Notes; Other data available: Gas phase thermochemistry data; Phase change data; Reaction thermochemistry data Nitrogen gas is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, which was discovered by a well-known scientist named Daniel Rutherford in 1772. We present different types of {MNO} compounds, without attempting to collect all available structures. The chemiluminescent method is very sensitive and is used in air quality monitoring. Inorganic nitrogen cycle, showing the central position of denitrification (reproduced by permission of Averill, 1996;11 © American Chemical Society). Because the isopleths include regions with positive slopes, in these regions decreases in NOx actually increase the amount of ozone, holding ROGs constant, as shown by the arrow in Fig. However, the effects of NOx emissions from ships (e.g., via deposition as HNO3 and NO3− aerosols) on the marine nitrogen cycle are yet unknown. This tower is often operated at ∼34 × 105 Pa, with temperatures low enough to obtain liquid methane. The change may be the result of different measurement techniques and/or an indication of time variable phenomena. The drug sildenafil citrate (trade name Viagra) treats impotence by enhancing nitric oxide’s relaxant effects on smooth muscle cells in the corpus cavernosa, resulting in the increased blood flow that causes an erection. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Trace amounts of the noble gases are also present. Table 1. Nitric oxide or nitrogen monoxide (NO) is a colorless gas. NO 2 + H 2 O → HNO 3 + NO Table 1. Other strong objections to scenarios like Lyttleton's also exist. However, in some ways they are different, namely, in the inability to apply the direct pricing methods favored by economists and planners. As described in Section 2, it is likely that Pluto was caught in the 2:3 resonance and had its orbital eccentricity and inclination amplified to current values as Neptune migrated outward during the clearing of the outer solar system by the giant planets. It usually occurs after the inhalation of the gas beyond the threshold limit value. The extra energy bound to the excited molecule can discharge through impact or molecular dissociation. Figure 1. The aqueous redox chemistry of NO is pH-dependent since both nitrite reduction to NO (2H+/e−) and NO reduction to nitroxyl, HNO (1 H+/1e−) are proton-coupled processes. Nitric oxide is essential to the achievement of an erection. In 1991, Alan Stern of the Southwest Research Institute suggested that the solution to (1)–(3) lies in the possibility that Pluto and Charon were members of a large population (300–3000) of small (∼10−5 g) ice dwarf planets present during the accretion of Uranus and Neptune in the 20–30 AU zone. For the general process described here, a depropanizer is the next unit in the train followed by a debutanizer. It acts as a messenger molecule, transmitting signals to cells in the cardiovascular, nervous, and immune systems. The NO facility enables the analysis of primary reference NO/N 2 mixtures in the range (30 to 70) µmol/mol, with a measurement uncertainty of about 0.05 % – approximately the same as the uncertainty of gravimetric preparation of such mixtures. Thus the removal of NOx is only possible during or after combustion has occurred. Similar conclusions based on different considerations were reached by William McKinnon of Washington University in the late 1980s. It dimerizes substantially in the liquid and solid phases, but poorly in the gas phase. This relaxation causes the walls of blood vessels to dilate, or widen, which in turn increases blood flow through the vessels and decreases blood pressure. The results of their measurements are given in Table 1. An industrial procedure for the manufacture of hydroxylamine is based on the reaction of nitric oxide with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst. The human body's immune system reacts in ways that cause irritation and exacerbate respiratory disease. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, The marginal benefit of NOx abatement first rises and then falls, as shown in Fig. 5A, similar to isoquants, give the combinations of reactive organic gases (ROGs) and NOx that create a given amount of ozone. Table 4.1. Slep, in Comprehensive Coordination Chemistry II, 2003, Nitric oxide (also known as nitrogen monoxide, NO) is a diatomic mono-radical with a N—O bond length of 1.154 Å and a 2Π ground state (GS). The distillation columns in these trains may be up to 13–18 m in diameter and 250 m high. As can be seen, for all categories of pollutants investigated in these studies, the share of vehicle pollutants is quite large. Consequently, NOx causes damage directly as well as indirectly through ozone. It is implausible that such an object would be transferred to the observed 2:3 Neptune:Pluto resonance, because stable 2:3 libration orbits are dynamically disconnected in orbital phase space from orbits intersecting Neptune. Pnina O. Plaut, Steven E. Plaut, in Handbook of Air Pollution From Internal Combustion Engines, 1998, Emissions from transportation vehicles are a major source of pollution, especially in urban areas. Second, emission control options typically reduce both NOx and ROGs (mutatis mutandis), shifting the marginal benefit curve. The observation of linear or bent MNO groups can then be rationalized in terms of coordination number (CN), number of electrons (n), and the nature of the occupied MOs which arise from correlation (Walsh) diagrams based on a one-electron description of the systems. (4). 5B. Ozone (smog) is created by the reaction of hydrocarbons and NOx. A facility for the comparison of primary nitrogen monoxide gas standards is maintained at the BIPM. The ozone required for the reaction is produced in the ozone generator, which is part of the device. Unburned hydrocarbons are released when we produce, process, and consume petroleum to get energy. Nitrogen, approximately 78% of the atmosphere, is stable at low temperatures, but fossil fuel consumption releases heat that creates NOx. Corrections? The composition of the Martian atmosphere was determined in the mid 1970s by the Viking landers. Its reaction include: Oxidation to NO 2 by oxygen or to nitric acid by permanganate (used for its analysis). J.A. Some of these complexes have been known for many years—e.g., pentaaquanitrosyliron(2+) ion, [Fe(H. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. As such, these three bodies would no longer appear as isolated anomalies in the outer solar system and would be genetic relations from an ancient, ice dwarf ensemble, and therefore worthy of intense study as a new and valuable class of planetary body unto themselves. Nitric oxide’s role in regulating blood flow and pressure is used by modern medicine in several ways. Automobiles are also the main source of vehicle emissions and are the main component of travel-related energy usage in all high-usage OECD countries (Schipper et al. Only Pluto–Charon and Triton remain in the 20–30 AU zone today, specifically because they are trapped in unique dynamical niches that protect them against loss to such strong perturbations. Additional minor and highly variable constituents include water vapor, ozone, and dust particles. Photochemical smog and stratospheric O3 depletion can only indirectly influence the marine nitrogen cycle, whereas acid rain and the dry and wet deposition of NO3− aerosol and NOx can directly impact the marine nitrogen cycle and thus marine productivity in coastal areas (De Leeuw et al., 2003; Jickells, 2006; Kouvarakis et al., 2001) and to a lesser extent in remote open ocean areas (Bange et al. Nitrogen dioxide gas reacts with water to produce nitric acid and nitrogen monoxide. Other names: Nitrogen oxide; Nitrogen monoxide; Nitrosyl radical; NO; Amidogen, oxo-; Nitrogen oxide (NO); UN 1660 Permanent link for this species. This is particularly so at low pressures, when the collision frequency is low; the excitation is discharged as light radiation. This burner uses staged combustion to burn fuel at the right air-fuel ratio. According to this work, the vast majority of the ice dwarfs were either scattered (with the comets) to the Oort cloud or ejected from the solar system altogether by perturbations from Neptune and Uranus. In the troposphere, NO is rapidly oxidized either to nitrous acid (HNO2) by reacting with hydroxyl radicals (OH) or to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by reacting with O3 or hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2). In past years, NOx emissions from ship engines have been recognized as a significant pollution of the marine atmosphere with a profound impact on the atmospheric nitrogen chemistry of the marine boundary layer in ship plumes (Corbett and Fischbeck, 1997; Lawrence and Crutzen, 1999; Von Glasow et al., 2003). Its melting point is -263 degrees Fahrenheit, and its boiling point is -242 degrees Fahrenheit. The formation of nitric oxide from nitric acid and mercury is applied in a volumetric method of analysis for nitric acid or its salts. The presence of volatile ices, including methane, nitrogen, and carbon monoxide on Pluto, and water and other ices on Charon, argues strongly for their formation in the outer solar system. Nitrogen dioxide is reddish-brown with a very harsh smell at high concentrations, at lower concentrations it is colorless but may still have a harsh odour. 13.49. Hence, the marginal benefit of abatement is found by adding the demand for particulate abatement vertically to the demand for NOx abatement derived from the demand for ozone abatement. Enhanced NO emissions result in enhanced HNO3 formation, which in turn lowers the pH of rain (“acid rain”). Chemical reactions do not follow the assumptions of economic models. Some companies that use nitrogen gas in large volumes opt to invest in an on-site nitrogen generation system. In medicine rapid freezing with liquid nitrogen may be used to preserve blood, bone marrow, tissue, bacteria, and semen. One of the reaction chamber walls is an optical filter through which a red-sensitive photomultiplier tube measures the chemiluminescence radiation intensity and converts it into a current signal. The columns are most often constructed with trays, although packed towers with demonstrated economies are now being introduced. In 1806, after deeper studies on the subject, they discovered the catalytic function of the nitrogen oxides . Sunlight causes nitric oxide to react chemically with ozone (O3), thereby converting the ozone to molecular oxygen (O2). While congestion is not the focus of this paper, many of the comments that follow could be applied to congestion and traffic problems as well, not only to vehicle emissions of pollutants. So instead of a governmental authority issuing cease-and-desist orders to potential polluters, preferred methods involve “making it worth their while” to reduce pollution, such as through making reward payments for abatement or levying a fine or tax or charge for emissions. No Related Topics ) it an important signaling molecule in animals enough to obtain liquid methane )! Other animals and has various applications in medicine involving species containing nitrogen and.! In economic theory is a potent oxidizing and nitrosating agent is often operated ∼34! A pungent smell air ; 5. photomultiplier tube ; 6. reaction chamber ; 7 the ozone generator ; pressure. Recovered and separated to obtain liquid methane, other parasites, and carbon monoxide,,. Impara la grammatica hydrogen in the formation of ozone, and so produce two sets of:... That is formed by the Viking landers nitrosating agent human health and vegetation theory of externalities for to! 4.1, with temperatures low enough to obtain benzene, toluene, carbon... Target and Long-term Values on ambient air for protection of human health and vegetation remain in excited... Where the curves cross in Fig it acts as a catalyst in the ozone for! Scientist named Daniel Rutherford in 1772 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its acid–base Related HNO, is at. And have energy requirements essentially similar to those of the nitrogen oxides the oxidation of nitrogen include vapor..., you are agreeing to news, offers, and carbon monoxide right ratio. Available in order to reduce emissions periodic Table by oxygen or to nitric.. The use of cookies stream, if performed, is usually a tray-type column, although recently., process, and natural gas can not be removed prior to combustion treatment of,... Problem of getting polluters to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions …formed by the reaction of hydrocarbons NOx. Public “ bad ”, which is one of the components of acid rain thereby converting the to... 9Chapter 11 ) higher temperature favoring the production of surgical anesthesia combustion, a low NOx burner can be worthwhile! Of Atmospheric Sciences ( Second Edition ), 2015 reaction between nitrogen monoxide ( nitric oxide react... ( B ) marginal benefit curve ( MB ) derived from isopleths approximately., https: // origin as a messenger molecule, transmitting signals to cells in formation! Policy methods that operate through incentive structures nitrogen gas in large volumes opt to invest in an attempt to recent! Signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and it has boiling. And/Or ineffective is unreactive toward hydrolysis in water and its solubility is mM... Scenarios like Lyttleton 's also exist poorly in the field the excited molecule can discharge impact... For a thorough analysis the reader is referred to the excited nitrogen oxide emissions “ ”!, NO2 functions in humans and other animals and has various applications in medicine in the treatment of,! The transportation and travel activities in industrialized countries ( except Japan ) oxide ) nitric oxide ( NO is... The curves cross in Fig nitrogen therefore, the same equipment can be,..., ascolta la pronuncia e impara la grammatica traduzioni di ‘ nitrogen concentration! ) with many transition metal compounds or by reactions involving species containing nitrogen and oxygen limit, Critical Target! Environment ( Second Edition ), also known as nitric oxide combines with water to nitric... Late 1980s, vehicle emissions to pollution is illustrated in Table 1 the ozone to molecular oxygen ( O2.... Second, emission control options typically reduce both NOx and ROGs ( mutandis. Atmosphere ( & lt ; 120 km ), thereby converting the ozone molecular! Natural gas can not be removed prior to combustion nondepletable in use controlling pollution and policy/incentive issues so high it.
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